Nutritional rehabilitation needs to be central to the community management of these patients’ post-hospital discharge to ensure efficient and effective recovery and to reduce the risk of hospital re-admissions or the duration of long-COVID-19

Nutritional rehabilitation needs to be central to the community management of these patients’ post-hospital discharge to ensure efficient and effective recovery and to reduce the risk of hospital re-admissions or the duration of long-COVID-19. In this respect, access to healthy foods should be a priority for individuals and LIN41 antibody governments to reduce the susceptibility and prolonged effects of COVID19. and cellular immunity specially Tell immunity.3. Regulation of DNA replication and cell division.4. Generation of nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as scavenging activity by immune cells.VitaminsA group vitamins1. Antiviral immunity.2. Regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of immune cells nuclear retinoid acid receptor.B group vitamins1. Immune metabolic pathways as co-factor.2. Viral clearance regulation of natural killer cells and cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocyte functions.C group vitamins1. Act as enzymatic co-factor and an essential antioxidant in boosting immune functions including phagocytosis, cell signalling, antibody production leucocyte migration, and hormone production.D group vitamins1. Controlling inflammation in the lungs.2. Proliferation and activation of viral specific immune cells its receptor.3. Upregulation of cytokines and their recruitment to the infected sites.E group vitamins1. Antioxidant activity.2. Gene transcription of proteins involved in T-cell proliferation, phagocytosis 10-Deacetylbaccatin III and cytotoxicity, regulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and modulate signal transduction.MineralsZinc1. Antiviral and antibacterial immunity, inhibition of viral RNA polymerase and ACE2 activity.2. Involved in modulation of inflammatory cytokines.3. Upregulation of Th1cytokine responses, activation of immune metabolic pathways.Selenium1. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.2. Increase in T-cell proliferation.3. Upregulation of IL-10.Copper1. Inhibition of viral replication and release.2. Inhibition of viral-induced cell apoptosis.3. Activity of ceruloplasmin, benzylamine oxidase and superoxide dismutase and improvement of the cell antioxidant status.Magnesium1. Activator role in many of enzymatic reactions.2. Regulation of nuclear factorthe nuclear retinoid acid receptor (68, 69) and regulates the proliferation and differentiation of immune cells 10-Deacetylbaccatin III and modulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF and IL 6 (70, 71). A protective role of vitamin A has been indicated against in a variety of lung infections, HIV, and malaria (72, 73). In animal models of corona virus infection, the levels of plasma retinol and retinol-binding protein is significantly reduced and mortality from respiratory infections decreases in those with adequate vitamin A 10-Deacetylbaccatin III within their diets (74, 75). As a result, we postulate that vitamin A supplementation may make a useful contribution in combating the risk of susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and reducing the severity of the disease in patients. B group vitamins are key players in metabolic pathways particularly those of organic molecules. Furthermore, the important role of B group vitamins including folic acid, B12, and B6 in immune function is well known. For example, the active form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal phosphate, is a cofactor for 10-Deacetylbaccatin III many metabolic processes particularly transamination or breakdown of amino acids and the metabolism of important immunomodulatory mediators (76, 77). These metabolic pathways are also important in viral infection suggesting that a balance intake of these vitamins is necessary in the regulation of the viral immune response. In particular, they regulate the function of natural killer cells and cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes and thereby contribute to effective viral clearance 10-Deacetylbaccatin III (78). Vitamin D is fat soluble and known as a multifunctional agent in a broad range of bodily functions including immune reactions (79). Vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are expressed in a broad range of respiratory epithelial and immune cells and vitamin D activation is induced by cytokines and TLRs within the respiratory tract (79, 80). Epidemiological studies indicated the importance of vitamin D in the immune defence against influenza A and B, parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (81, 82). Interestingly; low levels of serum vitamin D enhanced the risk of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections (83). It has been reported that serum vitamin D levels of 95 nmol/L significantly reduced the rate of acute viral respiratory tract infections two-fold (60). On the other hand, low levels of vitamin D are associated with enhanced levels of inflammatory cytokines and an increase in the incidence of many diseases. Importantly, vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased thrombotic episodes, obesity, and diabetes which are frequently observed in severe COVID-19 patients (84). An inhibitory and antiviral activity of vitamin D in human nasal epithelial cells infected with SARS-CoV-2S has been reported (85). Vitamin D deficiency has shown an important role in reducing the risk of severe disease.